Paradigms supported in Python

December 05, 2023

Tags: Technologies



There are 4 programming paradigms used in Python, each has its benefits and uses depending on the situation. Python web frameworks, for example, typically use a mix of procedural and object-oriented paradigms.


Object-oriented paradigm


It is one of the most common paradigms, it uses the concepts of classes, objects and inheritance, among others, to structure the code. Python allows inheritance, which means that one class can inherit attributes and methods from another.


# Creación de clase
class Persona:
    # Método de inicialización
    def __init__(self, nombre, edad):
        self.nombre = nombre
        self.edad = edad

    # Método
    def mostrar_informacion(self):
        print(f"Nombre: {self.nombre}, Edad: {self.edad}")

# Creación de objetos de clase personas con valores iniciales
persona1 = Persona("Juan", 30)
persona2 = Persona("María", 25)

# Ejecución de métodos de cada objeto




Procedural paradigm


The procedural paradigm in Python performs a sequence of execution of different functions that encapsulate blocks of code that perform specific tasks, organizing them through loops and other control structures such as conditionals.


# Creation of function (it does not belong to any class)
def calculate_average(numbers):
     sum = 0
     for number in numbers:
         sum += number
     average = sum / len(numbers)
     average return

numbers = [5, 10, 15, 20, 25]

# Function call (note that it does not belong to any object)
average = calculate_average(numbers)

print(f"The average of the list is: {average}")


Functional paradigm


In the functional paradigm, as the name says, the main unit is the functions; making great use of lambdas, `map()`, `filter()` and `reduce()`. This approach promotes the use of simple functions, without side effects; avoiding the use of conditionals or complex loops that modify the data and replacing them with multiple simpler functions that connect together.


from functools import reduce

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

def square(number):
     return number ** 2

def is_even(number):
     return number % 2 == 0

def sum(a, b):
     return a + b

# Using map() to square each number
squares = list(map(square, numbers))

# Using filter() to get even numbers
even_numbers = list(filter(even_numbers, numbers))

# Using reduce() to add all the numbers
sum_total = reduce(sum, numbers)

print("Square:", square)
print("Even numbers:", even_numbers)
print("Total sum:", total_sum)



Imperative paradigm


Technically procedural programming is also imperative, however, in this case we are referring to the explicit calling of instructions that can be given on the data. A common use is to analyze data such as in a Jupyter Notebook or directly execute commands in the Python console.


Language Concepts




They are classes that are created for convenience with the primary purpose of storing data. These include by default special methods for comparing values and representing them as strings.


from dataclasses import dataclass

# Creation of a dataclass. No need for a __init__
class Person:
     name: str
     age: int

# Object creation
person1 = Person("John", 30)
person2 = Person("Mary", 25)

# Direct access to attributes

# Display the object as __repr__

# Object comparison via __eq__
print(person1 == person2)




Lambda functions are widely used in functional programming; this functionality allows creating anonymous functions, commonly hosting simple and short operations.


# Definition of a lambda function
sum = lambda x, y: x + y

result = sum(3, 5)

# It is also possible to use them directly
numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
squares = list(map(lambda x: x ** 2, numbers))







Decorators are functions that modify or wrap other functions or methods (such as the dataclass that creates special methods on the class). They are used to extend functionality of functions or alter their behavior.


# Definition of a decorator
def wrapper_decorator(func):
     def message():
         print("Before calling the function.")
         print("After calling the function.")
     return message

def greeting():
     print("Hello, world!")

# Decorated function call


Tips: How to get familiar with the code easier


  1. General view of the project structure, either from the IDE or using the `tree` command to identify if there are directories such as `models`, `routes` (focused mostly on the web) or `services`.
  2. Review at least one of the files in each of these directories to, apart from knowing their location, the role they play within the project. Example, how much logic is being abstracted into services.
  3. Once familiar with these files, it is easier to review the source code of the "main" file (it may vary if it is CLI, a lambda, a framework) since without needing to know the internal code of each file or method, we can follow the logic knowing the role of each of the classes.


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